API 5L

API 5L

The American Petroleum Institute regulates the API 5L. The API 5L specification applies to pipes used in the petroleum, gas, and water distribution industries to transport oil, gas, and water. It can be read directly on the API website.

The American Petroleum Institute Specification, abbreviated as API, is the principal trade promotion organization of the American industry, as well as a non-profit industry group combining Petroleum exploration, production, storage, transportation, and sales. It has a lengthy history of establishing petroleum measuring standards.

API standards are widely used in federal and state laws and regulations in the United States, as well as government agencies such as the Department of Transportation, the Department of Defense, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the United States Customs Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the United States Geological Survey. They are also utilized by ISO, the International Legal Metrology Organization, and over 100 national standards throughout the world.

PRODUCT FEATURES

Product Specification Levels of API 5L

API 5L PSL-1 pipe has the same pipe grade as steel pipe (indicated by the steel name). It is made up of a letter or alphanumeric identification that identifies the pipe’s strength level and is related to the chemical composition of the steel.

API 5L PIPE PSL1

Chemical Composition

Mechanical Property

C (Max)

Mn (Max)

P (Max)

S (Max)

TENSILE ( Min )

YIELD ( Min )

Psi X 1000

Mpa

Psi X 1000

Mpa

Grade A25

CL I

0.21

0.60

0.030

0.030

45

310

25

172

CL II

0.21

0.60

0.030

0.030

Grade A

0.22

0.90

0.030

0.030

48

331

30

207

Grade B

0.26

1.20

0.030

0.030

60

414

35

241

Grade X42

0.26

1.30

0.030

0.030

60

414

42

290

Grade X46

0.26

1.40

0.030

0.030

63

434

46

317

Grade X52

0.26

1.40

0.030

0.030

66

455

52

359

Grade X56

0.26

1.40

0.030

0.030

71

490

56

386

Grade X60

0.26

1.40

0.030

0.030

75

517

60

414

Grade X65

0.26

1.45

0.030

0.030

77

531

65

448

Grade X70

0.26

1.65

0.030

0.030

82

565

70

483

The pipe grade for API 5L PSL-2 pipe must be as shown in the table below, with alpha or alphanumeric identification designating the pipe’s strength class. Steel names that are related with the chemical composition of the steel (defined steel class) also include a suffix consisting of a single letter (R, N, Q, or M) that identifies the delivery terms.

API 5L PIPE
PSL2

Chemical Composition

Mechanical Property

C
Max

Mn
Max

P
Max

S
Max

Tensile

Yield

C. E. IMPACT ENERGY

Psi x 1000

Mpa

Psi x 1000

Mpa

PCM

IIW

J

FT/LB

Grade B

0.22

1.20

0.025

0.015

60 – 110

414 – 758

35 – 65

241 – 448

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X42

0.22

1.30

0.025

0.015

60 – 110

414 – 758

42 – 72

290 – 496

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X46

0.22

1.40

0.025

0.015

63 – 110

434 – 758

46 – 76

317 – 524

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X52

0.22

1.40

0.025

0.015

66 – 110

455 – 758

52 – 77

359 – 531

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X56

0.22

1.40

0.025

0.015

71 – 110

490 – 758

56 – 79

386 – 544

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X60

0.22

1.40

0.025

0.015

75 – 110

517 – 758

60 – 82

414 – 565

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X65

0.22

1.45

0.025

0.015

77 – 110

531 – 758

65 – 82

448 – 565

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X70

0.22

1.65

0.025

0.015

82 – 110

565 – 758

70 – 82

483 – 565

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Grade X80

0.22

1.90

0.025

0.015

90 – 120

621 – 827

80 – 102

552 – 705

0.25

0.43

T/L 27/41

T/L 20/30

Production Tolerances of API 5L Line Pipe

- API 5L Outside Diameter and Out of Roundness Tolerance

Specified Outside Diameter D (in)

Diameter Tolerance, inches d

Out-of-Roundness Tolerance in

Pipe except the end a

Pipe end a,b,c

Pipe except the End a

Pipe End a,b,c

SMLS Pipe

Welded Pipe

SMLS Pipe

Welded Pipe

< 2.375

-0.031 to + 0.016

–  0.031 to + 0.016

0.048

0.036

≥2.375 to 6.625

+/- 0.0075D

–  0.016 to + 0.063

0.020D for

0.015D for

n/t≤75

n/t≤75

By agreement for

By agreement for

n/t≤75

n/t≤75

>6.625 to 24.000

+/- 0.0075D

+/- 0.0075D, but max of 0.125

+/- 0.005D, but max of 0.063

0.020D

0.015D

>24 to 56

+/- 0.01D

+/- 0.005D but max of 0.160

+/- 0.079

+/- 0.063

0.015D for but a max of 0.060

0.01D for but a max of 0.500

For

For

n/t≤75

n/t≤75

By agreement

By agreement

for

for

n/t≤75

n/t≤75

>56

As agreed

  a. The pipe end includes a length of 4 in ate each of the pipe extremities

  b. For the SMLS pipe the tolerance applies for t≤0.984in and the tolerances for the thicker pipe shall be as agreed

c. For expanded pipe with D≥8.625in and for non-expanded pipe, the diameter tolerance, and the out-of-roundness tolerance may be determined using the calculated inside diameter or measured inside diameter rather than the specified OD.

  d. For determining compliance to diameter tolerance, the pipe diameter is defined as the circumference of the pipe in any circumferential plane divided by Pi.

- API 5L Wall Thickness Tolerances

Wall thickness

Tolerances a

t inches

inches

Welded pipe c,d

≤ 0.197

+/- 0.020

> 0.197 to < 0.591

+/- 0.1t

≥ 0.591

+/- 0.060

a. If the purchase order specifies a minus tolerance for wall thickness smaller than the applicable value given in this table, the plus tolerance for wall thickness shall be increased by an amount sufficient to maintain the applicable tolerance range.

b. For pipe with D≥ 14.000 in and t≥0.984in, the wall thickness tolerance locally may exceed the plus tolerance for wall thickness by an additional 0.05t provided that the plus tolerance for mass is not exceeded.

c. The plus tolerance for wall thickens does not apply to the weld area

d. See the full API5L spec for full details

sTEEL gRADEs of API 5L Line Pipe

Line pipes are appropriate for a range of standards. According to consumer needs, production meets the line pipe of various standards. We are usually made according to metallurgical requirements that were developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API). API 5L Specifications cover seamless and welded line pipes suitable for use in conveying gas, water, oil, and other liquefied media. It is used in line pipe production worldwide. Pipelines are made in a wide variety, varying in size from 2 to 24 inches.

Test and inspection of API 5L Line pipes

- Hydrostatic Test

The pipe must be able to survive a hydrostatic test without leaking through the weld seam or the pipe body. Jointers do not need to be hydrostatically tested if the pipe sections utilized have been successfully tested.

- Bend Test

There shall be no cracks in any part of the test piece, nor shall there be any opening of the weld.

- Flattening Test

The flattening test method is used to evaluate and exhibit the deformation performance of line pipe to the prescribed size. The flattening test will reveal the pipe’s resistance to longitudinal and circumferential cracking, as well as its internal and surface faults, based on the stress and deformation characteristics of the specimen during the flattening procedure.

- CVN Impact Test for PSL-2

CVN is required for several PSL2 pipe diameters and grades. The body will be inspected for seamless pipe. The welded pipe must be examined in three areas: the body, the pipe weld, and the heat-affected zone. The chart of sizes and grades, as well as the required absorbed energy values, may be found in the full API 5L specification.

- DWT Test for PSL-2 Welded Pipe

The average shear fracture area for each test (of a set of two test pieces) shall be 85 percent, based on a test temperature of 0°C (32°F) or if accepted, a lower test temperature. For wall thicknesses greater than 25.4mm (1.000 in. ), DWT test acceptance standards must be agreed upon.

NOTE1: At or above the test temperature, such shear-fracture area assures a suitably ductile fracture.

NOTE2: In gas pipelines, an appropriate combination of shear-fracture area and CVN absorbed energy is an essential pipe-body feature for avoiding brittle fracture propagation and controlling ductile fracture propagation (see Annex G and Table20).

The Advantages of API 5L LINE Pipe

  • Resistance to cracking forces that may propagate in long pipelines
  • Sour service suitability
  • Rather inexpensive and long service life (at least Gr. B, X42)
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