API 5L PSL-1

API 5L PSL-1

The American Petroleum Institute standard API 5L PSL-1 applies to both seamless and welded steel line pipes. It contains threaded line pipe in both normal and extra-strong weights. It contains standard-weight and extra-strong threaded line pipe, as well as standard-weight plain-end, regular-weight plain-end, special plain-end, extra-strong plain-end, special plain-end, extra-strong plain-end pipe, bell and spigot, and TFL pipe.

The API committee establishes standards for these pipes, which are required by the majority of energy firms. PSL-1 and PSL-2 are standards that have been implemented to assist with the more stringent requirements for each grade level. These two fundamental criteria are acknowledged as having differing levels of physical and technical requirements.

API 5L specifies two specifications, PSL-1 and PSL-2. This specification covers the following grades: A25,A,B (and the following “X” Grades), X42, X46, X52, X56, X60, X65, X70, X80. The two-digit number following the “X” represents the Minimum Yield Strength (in 000 psi) of the pipe manufactured to this grade. API 5L Line Pipes are commonly used in the hydrocarbon petroleum and natural gas industries for carrying fluids such as gas, water, and oil. PSL-1 and PSL-2 are standards that have been implemented to assist with the more stringent requirements for each grade level.

PRODUCT FEATURES

Application of API 5L PSL-1 Line Pipe

In the oil, gas, and petroleum sectors, API 5L PSL-1 Welded Pipes are often used. Useful for transporting gas, steam, and fluids including water and oil from offshore to refineries, API 5L PSL-1 Pipe is an excellent choice. An array of industries employ API 5L PSL-1 pipe including heating, chemical processing, water supply systems, pipe fitting, and paper and pulp mills.

Chemical Composition for API 5L PSL-1 Pipe with t ≤ 0.984”

Steel Grade

Mass fraction, % based on heat and product analyses a,g

C

Mn

P

S

V

Nb

Ti

max b

max b

max

max

max

max

max

Welded Pipe

API 5L Gr. A PSL-1

0.22

0.9

0.3

0.3

API 5L Gr. B PSL-1

0.26

1.2

0.3

0.3

c,d

c,d

d

API 5L X42 PSL-1

0.26

1.3

0.3

0.3

d

d

d

API 5L X46 PSL-1

0.26

1.4

0.3

0.3

d

d

d

API 5L X52 PSL-1

0.26

1.4

0.3

0.3

d

d

d

API 5L X56 PSL-1

0.26

1.4

0.3

0.3

d

d

d

API 5L X60 PSL-1

0.26 e

1.40 e

0.3

0.3

f

f

f

API 5L X65 PSL-1

0.26 e

1.45 e

0.3

0.3

f

f

f

API 5L X70 PSL-1

0.26e

1.65 e

0.3

0.3

f

f

f

a. Cu ≤ = 0.50% Ni; ≤ 0.50%; Cr ≤ 0.50%; and Mo ≤ 0.15%,
b. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum concentration for carbon, an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum concentration for Mn is permissible, up to a maximum of 1.65% for grades ≥ L245 or B, but ≤ L360 or X52; up to a maximum of 1.75% for grades > L360 or X52, but < L485 or X70; and up to a maximum of 2.00% for grade L485 or X70.,
c. Unless otherwise agreed NB + V ≤ 0.06%,
d. Nb + V + TI ≤ 0.15%,
e. Unless otherwise agreed.,
f. Unless otherwise agreed, NB + V = Ti ≤ 0.15%,
g. No deliberate addition of B is permitted and the residual B ≤ 0.001%

API 5L PSL-1 Line Pipe Mechanical Properties

TYPE

Tensile strength (Mpa)

Yield strength (Mpa)

Elongation

API 5L Gr. B PSL-1

≥415

≥245

As per API 5L

API 5L X42 PSL-1

≥415

≥290

As per API 5L

API 5L X46 PSL-1

≥435

≥320

As per API 5L

API 5L X52 PSL-1

≥460

≥360

As per API 5L

API 5L X56 PSL-1

≥490

≥390

As per API 5L

API 5L X60 PSL-1

≥520

≥415

As per API 5L

API 5L X70PSL-1

≥565

≥483

As per API 5L

a. For intermediate grade, the difference between the specified minimum tensile strength and the specified minimum yield for the pipe body shall be as given for the next higher grade.
b. For the intermediate grades, the specified minimum tensile strength for the weld seam shall be the same as determined for the body using footnote a.
c. The specified minimum elongation, Af, expressed in percent and rounded to the nearest percent, shall be determined using the following equation:
Where C is 1 940 for calculation using Si units and 625 000 for calculation using USC units
Axc   is the applicable tensile test piece cross-sectional area, expressed in square millimeters (square inches), as follows
– For circular cross-section test pieces, 130mm2 (0.20 in2) for 12.7 mm (0.500 in) and 8.9 mm (.350 in) diameter test pieces; and 65 mm2 (0.10 in2) for 6.4 mm (0.250in) diameter test pieces.
– For full-section test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified outside diameter and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
– For strip test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified width of the test piece and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
U is the specified minimum tensile strength, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch)

Dimensions and Sizes of API 5L PSL-1 Line Pipe

NPS

O. D.

Nominal Wall Thickness

 

DN

Inch

mm

SCH5S

SCH10S

SCH10

SCH20

SCH30

SCH40

SCH60

SCH80

SCH100

SCH120

SCH140

SCH160

STD

XS

XXS

 

50

2″

60.3

1.65

2.77

3.91

5.54

8.74

3.91

5.54

11.07

 

65

2 1/2″

73

2.11

3.05

5.16

7.01

9.53

5.16

7.01

14.02

 

80

3″

88.9

2.11

3.05

5.49

7.62

11.13

5.49

7.52

15.24

 

90

3 1/2″

101.6

2.11

3.05

5.74

8.08

5.74

8.08

 

100

4″

114.3

2.11

3.05

6.02

8.58

11.13

13.49

6.02

8.56

17.12

 

125

5″

141.3

2.77

3.4

6.55

9.53

12.7

15.88

6.55

9.53

18.05

 

150

6″

168.3

2.77

3.4

7.11

10.97

14.27

18.26

7.11

10.97

21.95

 

200

8″

219.1

2.77

3.76

6.35

7.04

8.18

10.31

12.7

15.09

18.26

20.62

23.01

8.18

12.7

22.23

 

250

10″

273.1

3.4

4.19

6.35

7.8

9.27

12.7

15.09

18.26

21.44

25.4

28.58

9.27

12.7

25.4

 

300

12″

323.9

3.96

4.57

6.35

8.38

10.31

14.27

17.48

21.44

25.4

28.58

33.32

9.53

12.7

25.4

 

350

14″

355.5

3.96

4.78

6.35

7.92

9.53

11.13

15.09

19.05

23.83

27.79

31.75

35.71

9.53

12.7

 

400

16″

406.4

4.19

4.78

6.35

7.92

9.53

12.7

16.66

21.44

26.19

30.96

36.53

40.49

9.53

12.7

 

450

18″

457.2

4.19

4.78

6.35

7.92

11.13

14.27

19.05

23.83

39.36

34.93

39.67

45.24

 

500

20″

508

4.78

5.54

6.35

9.53

12.7

15.09

20.62

26.19

32.54

38.1

44.45

50.01

 

550

22″

558.8

4.78

5.54

6.35

9.53

12.7

22.23

28.58

34.93

41.28

47.63

53.98

 

600

24″

609.6

5.54

6.35

6.35

9.53

14.27

17.48

24.61

30.96

38.89

46.02

52.37

59.54

 

API 5L PSL-1 Specification

Grade range

A25 through X70

Table 1

Size range

0.405 through 80

Table 1

Type of pipe ends

Plain-end, threaded-end, beveled-end, special coupling pipe

Table 1

Seam welding

All methods of continuous welding limited to Grade A25

Table 1

Electric welds: welder frequency

No minimum

5.1.3.3.2

Heat treatments of electric welds

Required for grades > X42

5.1.3.3.1; J.3.3.2:6.2.7

Chemistry: max C for seamless pipe

0.28% for grades > Gr B

Tables 2A, 2B

Chemistry: max C for welded pipe

0.26% for grades > Gr B

Tables 2A, 2B

Chemistry: max P

0.03%

Tables 2A, 2B

Chemistry: max S

Only when purchases specify SR18

Tables 2A, 2B

Carbon equivalent

None

4.2:4.3:6.1.3: SR15.1

Yield strength, maximum

None

Tables 3A, 3B

UTS, maximum

None required

Tables 3A, 3B

Fracture toughness

Only when the purchaser specifies SR4

6.2.6; 9.3.5: 9.8.4; 9.10.7;

Non-destructive inspection of Seamless Pipes

Permitted

Table 14 9.7.2.6

Repair by welding pipe body, plate, and skelp

Permitted by agreement

5.3.2;9.7.6: B.1;B.2

Certification

Certificates when specified per SR15

4.3;9.7.4.4;9.7.6;B.1.2;B.4

Traceability

Traceable only until all tests are passed unless SR15 is specified

12.1
5.6

Delivery Conditions for API 5L PSL-1 Pipes

PSL

Delivery conditions for API 5L X52 PSL1 Seamless Pipe

Steel grade

PSL -1

As rolled, normalizing rolled, thermomechanical rolled/formed, normalizing formed, normalized, and tempered; if agreed, quenched and tempered for SMLS pipe only

B

As rolled, normalizing rolled, thermomechanical rolled/formed, normalizing formed, normalized and tempered or quenched and tempered

X42, X46, X52, X56, X60, X65, X70

Test and inspection of API 5L PSL-1 Line pipes

- Hydrostatic Test

The pipe must be able to survive a hydrostatic test without leaking through the weld seam or the pipe body. Jointers do not need to be hydrostatically tested if the pipe sections utilized have been successfully tested.

- Bend Test

There shall be no cracks in any part of the test piece, nor shall there be any opening of the weld.

- Flattening Test

The flattening test method is used to evaluate and exhibit the deformation performance of line pipe to the prescribed size. The flattening test will reveal the pipe’s resistance to longitudinal and circumferential cracking, as well as its internal and surface faults, based on the stress and deformation characteristics of the specimen during the flattening procedure.

- CVN Impact Test for PSL-2

CVN is required for several PSL2 pipe diameters and grades. The body will be inspected for seamless pipe. The welded pipe must be examined in three areas: the body, the pipe weld, and the heat-affected zone. The chart of sizes and grades, as well as the required absorbed energy values, may be found in the full API 5L specification.

- DWT Test for PSL-2 Welded Pipe

The average shear fracture area for each test (of a set of two test pieces) shall be 85 percent, based on a test temperature of 0°C (32°F) or if accepted, a lower test temperature. For wall thicknesses greater than 25.4mm (1.000 in. ), DWT test acceptance standards must be agreed upon.

NOTE1: At or above the test temperature, such shear-fracture area assures a suitably ductile fracture.

NOTE2: In gas pipelines, an appropriate combination of shear-fracture area and CVN absorbed energy is an essential pipe-body feature for avoiding brittle fracture propagation and controlling ductile fracture propagation (see Annex G and Table20).

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