API 5L X65

API 5L X65

API X65 pipe, also known as ISO 3183 L450 pipe, is a high-level grade pipe in the API 5L (ISO 3183) standards that are used for oil and gas transportation. API 5L X65 pipe is also known as ISO 3183 L450 pipe. The reason we name it X65 pipe or L415 pipe is because the minimum yield strength necessary is 65000 Ksi or 450 Mpa, which is the minimum yield strength required.

API 5L pipes are available in grades ranging from B to X70 in regular usage, making Grade X65 pipe one of the top-class materials.

API X65 pipe, like other API 5L pipes, has two product standard levels, PSL1, and PSL2, and is sometimes needed for use in sour service applications.

PRODUCT FEATURES

Application of API 5L X65 Line Pipe

API 5L X65 Welded Pipes are widely utilized in the petroleum, oil, petrochemical, and natural gas industries. API 5L X65 Pipe is useful for transferring gas, steam, and fluids such as water and oil from offshore areas to refineries. API 5L X65 pipe is used in a range of industries, including heating, the chemical industry, water supply systems, plumbing, power plants, and the pulp and paper industry.

Different Levels of API 5L X65 Line Pipe

- API 5L X65 PSL-1

API 5L X65 PSL-1 Pipe is a standard carbon steel material used in a variety of tree kinds and for general purpose applications (No corrosion environment but in high-pressure pipelines required certain mechanical properties). As a result, it has much higher concentrations of C, Mn, Si, P, and S than the other two varieties. (When the concentration of these chemical components is smaller, the steel is purer.) The minimum yield strength is 450 Mpa (65300 psi), while the minimum tensile strength is 535 Mpa (65300 psi) (77600 psi).

- API 5L X65 PSL-2

API 5L X65 PSL-2 (also known as API 5L X65Q.M or L450Q/M) has a lower value for C, Si, Mn, P, and S than API 5L X65 PSL-1. C, Si, Mn, P, and S have lower values than API 5L X65 PSL-1. Because PSL-2 needs CEq to be less than 0.43 and CEpcm to be less than 0.25. (Ceq stands for carbon equivalent, and it affects the welding ability and strength of steel.) As a result, the mechanical strength of API 5L X65 PSL-2 Pipe (welded and seamless) is limited to the following maximum values: yield strength 450 – 600 Mpa (65300 psi to 87000 psi), tensile strength 535 to 760 Mpa (65300 psi to 87000 psi) (77600 psi to 110200 psi)

- API 5L X65 Sour Service

API 5L X65 sour service pipe (X65QS/MS, L415QS/MS), C maximum is 0.10, Mn maximum is 1.45, Si maximum is 0.45, P maximum is 0.020, S maximum is 0.002, V maximum is 0.10, Nb maximum is 0.08, Ti maximum is 0.06, CEPcm maximum is 0.22. It is necessary to maintain rigorous control over the chemical composition of sour service line pipe. So, to protect the pipe from corrosive conditions such as H2S, low carbon, and low CEPcm values will lower the martensite, which is susceptible to H bubble, so improving the corrosive resistance to H2S Furthermore, P and S should be less than those of standard line pipes. The mechanical strength of these steel line pipes is the same as that of API 5L X65 PSL2 steel line pipes.

API 5L X65 Pipe Chemical Composition

- Chemical Composition for API 5L X65 PSL 1 pipe with t ≤ 0.984”

Steel Grade

Mass fraction, % based on heat and product analyses a,g

C

Mn

P

S

V

Nb

Ti

max b

max b

max

max

max

max

max

Welded Pipe

X65

0.26

1.45

0.3

0.3

f

f

f

a. Cu ≤ = 0.50% Ni; ≤ 0.50%; Cr ≤ 0.50%; and Mo ≤ 0.15%,
b. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum concentration for carbon, an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum concentration for Mn is permissible, up to a maximum of 1.65% for grades ≥ L245 or B, but ≤ L360 or X52; up to a maximum of 1.75% for grades > L360 or X52, but < L485 or X70; and up to a maximum of 2.00% for grade L485 or X70.,
c. Unless otherwise agreed NB + V ≤ 0.06%,
d. Nb + V + TI ≤ 0.15%,
e. Unless otherwise agreed.,
f. Unless otherwise agreed, NB + V = Ti ≤ 0.15%,
g. No deliberate addition of B is permitted and the residual B ≤ 0.001%

- Chemical Composition for API 5L X65 PSL 2 Pipe with t ≤ 0.984”

Steel Grade

Mass fraction, % based on heat and product analyses

Carbon Equiv a

C

Si

Mn

P

S

V

Nb

Ti

Other

CE IIW

CE Pcm

max b

max

max b

max

max

max

max

max

max

max

Welded Pipe

X65M

0.12

0.45

1.6

0.025

0.015

g

g

g

h,l

0.43

0.25

a. SMLS t>0.787”, CE limits shall be as agreed. The CEIIW limits applied if C > 0.12% and the CEPcm limits apply if C ≤ 0.12%,
b. For each reduction of 0.01% below the specified maximum for C, an increase of 0.05% above the specified maximum for Mn is permissible, up to a maximum of 1.65% for grades ≥ L245 or B, but ≤ L360 or X52; up to a maximum of 1.75% for grades > L360 or X52, but < L485 or X70; up to a maximum of 2.00% for grades ≥ L485 or X70, but ≤ L555 or X80, and up to a maximum of 2.20% for grades > L555 or X80.,
c. Unless otherwise agreed Nb = V ≤ 0.06%,
d. Nb = V = Ti ≤ 0.15%,
e. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50%; Ni ≤ 0.30% Cr ≤ 0.30% and Mo ≤ 0.15%,
f. Unless otherwise agreed,
g. Unless otherwise agreed, Nb + V + Ti ≤ 0.15%,
h. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50% Ni ≤ 0.50% Cr ≤ 0.50% and MO ≤ 0.50%,
i. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50% Ni ≤ 1.00% Cr ≤ 0.50% and MO ≤ 0.50%,
j. B ≤ 0.004%,
k. Unless otherwise agreed, Cu ≤ 0.50% Ni ≤ 1.00% Cr ≤ 0.55%, and MO ≤ 0.80%,
l. For all PSL 2 pipe grades except those grades with footnotes j noted, the following applies. Unless otherwise agreed no intentional addition of B is permitted and residual B ≤ 0.001%.

API 5L X65 Pipe Mechanical Properties

- Mechanical Properties for API 5L X65 PSL-1 Pipe

Pipe Grade

Tensile Properties – Pipe Body of SMLS and Welded Pipes PSL 1

Seam of Welded Pipe

Yield Strength a

Tensile Strength a

Elongation

Tensile Strength b

Rt0,5 PSI Min

Rm PSI Min

(in 2in Af % min)

Rm PSI Min

X65

65,300

77,500

c

77,500

a. For intermediate grade, the difference between the specified minimum tensile strength and the specified minimum yield for the pipe body shall be as given for the next higher grade.
b. For the intermediate grades, the specified minimum tensile strength for the weld seam shall be the same as determined for the body using footnote a.
c. The specified minimum elongation, Af, expressed in percent and rounded to the nearest percent, shall be determined using the following equation:
Where C is 1 940 for calculation using Si units and 625 000 for calculation using USC units
Axc   is the applicable tensile test piece cross-sectional area, expressed in square millimeters (square inches), as follows
– For circular cross-section test pieces, 130mm2 (0.20 in2) for 12.7 mm (0.500 in) and 8.9 mm (.350 in) diameter test pieces; and 65 mm2 (0.10 in2) for 6.4 mm (0.250in) diameter test pieces.
– For full-section test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified outside diameter and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
– For strip test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified width of the test piece and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
U is the specified minimum tensile strength, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch)

- Mechanical Properties for API 5L X65 PSL-2 Pipe

Pipe Grade

Tensile Properties – Pipe Body of SMLS and Welded Pipes PSL 2

Seam of Welded Pipe

Yield Strength a

Tensile Strength a

Ratio a, c

Elongation

Tensile Strength d

Rt0,5  PSI Min

Rm  PSI Min

R10,5IRm

(in 2in)

Rm (psi)

Af %

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

Maximum

Minimum

Minimum

X65Q, X65M

65,300

87,000

77,600

110,200

0.93

f

76,600

a. For intermediate grade, refer to the full API5L specification.
b. for grades > X90 refers to the full API5L specification.
c. This limit applies for pies with D> 12.750 in
d. For intermediate grades, the specified minimum tensile strength for the weld seam shall be the same value as was determined for the pipe body using foot a.
e. for pipe requiring longitudinal testing, the maximum yield strength shall be ≤ 71,800 psi
f. The specified minimum elongation, Af, expressed in percent and rounded to the nearest percent, shall be determined using the following equation:
Where C is 1 940 for calculation using Si units and 625 000 for calculation using USC units
Axc   is the applicable tensile test piece cross-sectional area, expressed in square millimeters (square inches), as follows
– For circular cross-section test pieces, 130mm2 (0.20 in2) for 12.7 mm (0.500 in) and 8.9 mm (.350 in) diameter test pieces; and 65 mm2 (0.10 in2) for 6.4 mm (0.250in) diameter test pieces.
–  For full-section test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified outside diameter and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
–  For strip test pieces, the lesser of a) 485 mm2 (0.75 in2) and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece, derived using the specified width of the test piece and the specified wall thickness of the pipe, rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 (0.10in2)
   U is the specified minimum tensile strength, expressed in megapascals (pounds per square inch
g. Lower values fo R10,5IRm may be specified by agreement
h. for grades > x90 refers to the full API5L specification.

Dimensions and Sizes of API 5L X65 Line Pipe

NPS

O. D.

Nominal Wall Thickness

 

DN

Inch

mm

SCH5S

SCH10S

SCH10

SCH20

SCH30

SCH40

SCH60

SCH80

SCH100

SCH120

SCH140

SCH160

STD

XS

XXS

 

50

2″

60.3

1.65

2.77

3.91

5.54

8.74

3.91

5.54

11.07

 

65

2 1/2″

73

2.11

3.05

5.16

7.01

9.53

5.16

7.01

14.02

 

80

3″

88.9

2.11

3.05

5.49

7.62

11.13

5.49

7.52

15.24

 

90

3 1/2″

101.6

2.11

3.05

5.74

8.08

5.74

8.08

 

100

4″

114.3

2.11

3.05

6.02

8.58

11.13

13.49

6.02

8.56

17.12

 

125

5″

141.3

2.77

3.4

6.55

9.53

12.7

15.88

6.55

9.53

18.05

 

150

6″

168.3

2.77

3.4

7.11

10.97

14.27

18.26

7.11

10.97

21.95

 

200

8″

219.1

2.77

3.76

6.35

7.04

8.18

10.31

12.7

15.09

18.26

20.62

23.01

8.18

12.7

22.23

 

250

10″

273.1

3.4

4.19

6.35

7.8

9.27

12.7

15.09

18.26

21.44

25.4

28.58

9.27

12.7

25.4

 

300

12″

323.9

3.96

4.57

6.35

8.38

10.31

14.27

17.48

21.44

25.4

28.58

33.32

9.53

12.7

25.4

 

350

14″

355.5

3.96

4.78

6.35

7.92

9.53

11.13

15.09

19.05

23.83

27.79

31.75

35.71

9.53

12.7

 

400

16″

406.4

4.19

4.78

6.35

7.92

9.53

12.7

16.66

21.44

26.19

30.96

36.53

40.49

9.53

12.7

 

450

18″

457.2

4.19

4.78

6.35

7.92

11.13

14.27

19.05

23.83

39.36

34.93

39.67

45.24

 

500

20″

508

4.78

5.54

6.35

9.53

12.7

15.09

20.62

26.19

32.54

38.1

44.45

50.01

 

550

22″

558.8

4.78

5.54

6.35

9.53

12.7

22.23

28.58

34.93

41.28

47.63

53.98

 

600

24″

609.6

5.54

6.35

6.35

9.53

14.27

17.48

24.61

30.96

38.89

46.02

52.37

59.54

 

API 5L X65 Pipe Tolerance

O.D. Tolerance

W.T. Tolerance

X65

D < 60.3mm

+0.41/-0.40mm

D < 73mm

+15%/-12.5%

D ≥ 60.3m

+0.75/-0.40mm

D ≥ 73mm

+15%/-12.5%

Test and inspection of API 5L X65 Line pipes

- Hydrostatic Test

The pipe must be able to survive a hydrostatic test without leaking through the weld seam or the pipe body. Jointers do not need to be hydrostatically tested if the pipe sections utilized have been successfully tested.

- Bend Test

There shall be no cracks in any part of the test piece, nor shall there be any opening of the weld.

- Flattening Test

The flattening test method is used to evaluate and exhibit the deformation performance of line pipe to the prescribed size. The flattening test will reveal the pipe’s resistance to longitudinal and circumferential cracking, as well as its internal and surface faults, based on the stress and deformation characteristics of the specimen during the flattening procedure.

- CVN Impact Test for PSL-2

CVN is required for several PSL2 pipe diameters and grades. The body will be inspected for seamless pipe. The welded pipe must be examined in three areas: the body, the pipe weld, and the heat-affected zone. The chart of sizes and grades, as well as the required absorbed energy values, may be found in the full API 5L specification.

- DWT Test for PSL-2 Welded Pipe

The average shear fracture area for each test (of a set of two test pieces) shall be 85 percent, based on a test temperature of 0°C (32°F) or if accepted, a lower test temperature. For wall thicknesses greater than 25.4mm (1.000 in. ), DWT test acceptance standards must be agreed upon.

NOTE1: At or above the test temperature, such shear-fracture area assures a suitably ductile fracture.

NOTE2: In gas pipelines, an appropriate combination of shear-fracture area and CVN absorbed energy is an essential pipe-body feature for avoiding brittle fracture propagation and controlling ductile fracture propagation (see Annex G and Table20).

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