Pipe fitting is a component that connects segments in a series, offset, multiport, or installation configuration. Pipe fittings come in a variety of shapes and sizes and are composed of a variety of materials. Pipe joints, elbows, tees, sleeves, flanges, diaphragm pipe fittings, reducers, valves, and so on are all examples of pipe fittings. Pipe fittings are a type of pipe system. Steel pipes, pipe fittings, flanges, bolts and nuts, washers, valves, and pressure bearing elements of other piping components comprise the entire piping system.
The carbon content of carbon steel can be divided into low carbon steel (WC), medium carbon steel (wc0.25 percent – 0.6 percent), phosphorus and sulfur content and high carbon steel (WC > 6 percent) can be divided into ordinary carbon steel (high phosphorus and sulfur content), high-quality carbon steel (phosphorus and low sulfur content), and high-quality steel (phosphorus and low sulfur content) (low phosphorus and sulfur content). The greater the carbon concentration, the greater the hardness and strength, but the lesser the plasticity. Alternatively, up to 10.5 percent, alloy content is permitted. Because they are quite hard in nature, they have high wear resistance. These are likewise applicable to impact loads with no deformation. Carbon steel pipe parts are extremely strong, ductile, and corrosion-resistant. They provide great resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue, provide permanent leak proofing, and boost the pipeline structure’s strength and power. These goods make for a significant portion of the output of steel pipe fittings.
Carbon steel pipe fittings must be made in line with ASME code b16.9. ASME B16.9 applies to factory-fabricated carbon steel pipe fittings in sizes ranging from 1 / 2 ” to 48″. The specification, however, excludes carbon steel pipe sections that are resistant to low-pressure corrosion.
Types of Carbon Steel Pipe Fitting
- Pipe Nipples
A type of pipe fittings from 1/8 inch to 6-inch NPT. TOE and TBE styles. Allows two separate fittings to connect at each end. Standard nipples are straight with male threads on both ends.
- Pipe Couplings
A type of pipe fittings from 1/8 inch to 8-inch FNPT. Half couplings, full couplings, and unions. Connects two similar pipes to each other via solvent welding, soldering, or threading.
- Pipe Flanges
Slip-on, threaded, lap joint; weld neck, socket weld, blind, and plate styles. 125/150#, 300#, and lightweight.
- Elbow and Bends
A type of pipe fittings in 45, 90, and 180 deg. Short and Long radius. Weld-on and threaded versions. it is installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 180° or 90° angle, though 45° elbows are also made. The ends may be machined for butt welding (SW) or socketed welding (SW) etc.
- Pipe Reducers
Bushings, concentric/eccentric, flanges, elbows, tees. It includes all connections, which connect between two or more pipes of different sizes.
- Pipe Caps
Threaded and welded on. Covers the end of a pipe, attaching to a male connection via a weld, thread, solvent, or solder.
- Pipe Plugs
A type of pipe fittings in 150# and 3000#. It closes off the end of a pipe, attaching to a female connection via a weld, thread, solvent, or solder.
- Pipe Tees
It was the location where three pipes were connected. Its primary function is to change the direction of the fluid in the branch pipe. In a T-shaped intersection, three sections of piping are connected. This enables fluid flow to be combined or separated.
Coating Types of Pipe Fitting
- Varnish Coating
Couplings and other pipe fittings’ longevity and reliability are greatly influenced by the type and grade of the coating applied. Coating pipe fittings, on the other hand, may affect the evenness of flow through the pipe, as well as the need to avoid contamination of the pipe contents ( (e.g. foodstuffs or drinking water). Black and red are the two options for coatings. Plain carbon pipe fittings with no protective coatings are available in black and red paint. Because it lacks a protective coating, it may corrode quickly in wet or humid environments. Apply a layer of protection to the pipe to keep the pipe fittings from rusting or corroding from the outside.
- Zinc Coating
When a steel workpiece is immersed in molten zinc at roughly 450 °C, the workpiece absorbs the heat of the molten zinc and cools to room temperature. The interaction between zinc and iron becomes increasingly obvious as the temperature climbs above 200 °C, and zinc begins to penetrate the surface of the ironwork piece. As the temperature of the workpiece approaches that of liquid zinc, alloy layers with variable zinc-iron ratios form on the surface, resulting in the layered structure of zinc coating. As time passes, different alloy layers in the coating grow at different rates.
- Epxoy Coating
Epoxy coating or FPE coating: Epoxy coatings meet or surpass all industrial pipe-coating specifications. This corrosion-resistant coating is a one-part, heat-curable, thermosetting epoxy powder. FBE coated pipe is widely utilized throughout the world. Epoxy resin is used as the principal film-forming ingredient in this coating. There are many different sorts, each with its own set of qualities. Baking one component and two-component liquid epoxy coatings, powder epoxy coatings, and radiation curing epoxy coatings are the curing mechanisms of a self-drying single component, two-component, and multi-component liquid epoxy coatings. Solvent-based epoxy coatings, solvent-free epoxy coatings, and aqueous epoxy coatings are the three forms of epoxy coatings. It has excellent chemical resistance, corrosion resistance, water resistance, thermal stability, and electrical insulation, as well as a high level of adhesion. It’s used in a variety of industries, including construction, chemical, automotive, ship, and electrical insulation. The paint will lose its luster and become powdery after being exposed to the weather, making it suitable for use as a primer.
Connection Types of Pipe Fitting
- Butt Weld Fittings
This is a type of weld that is used to bind two or more pieces together. Alternatively, it refers to the process of welding two or more parts together, which includes the weld, the fusion zone, and the heat impacted zone. A high-temperature heat source is used to generate the welded connection in fusion welding. The weld metal, the fusion zone, the heat impacted zone, and the base metal make up the welded connection. The temperature and heat concentration of the heat source used in various welding methods vary. As a result, the size of the heat-affected zone and the microstructure of the welded connection, as well as the quality of the joint, vary. Furthermore, the mechanical protective benefits of various welding methods vary. As a result, weld metal purity, or the concentration of harmful contaminants in the weld, will vary, as will weld performance.
- Socket Weld Fittings
Socket welded pipe fittings extend the pipe into the valve body for welding. After forming, the shape is similar to that of an internal thread connection. Carbon steel tubing with a diameter of less than 2″ is used for socket welding. Inserting the pipe into the socket of the pipe fitting, reaching the socket placement stage, and then welding an argon protective fusion ring along the contact between the socket end of the pipe fitting and the pipe’s outer wall are the specific connection methods. During the welding operation, there was no use of welding wire (replaced by the socket end edge of the pipe fitting). It’s linked to a specific sort of welding. Pipe connection method with “no joint connection.”