ASTM A500

ASTM A500

The ASTM A500 standard specifies cold-formed welded and seamless carbon steel structural tubes in rounds and forms.

This specification covers cold-formed welded and seamless carbon steel round, square, rectangular, or special shape structural tubes for welded, riveted, or bolted bridge and building construction, as well as general structural uses.

This tube is available in welded and seamless types with a perimeter of 88 in. [2235mm] or less and a specified wall thickness of 0.875in. [22mm].

Heat treatment is required for Grade D.

PRODUCT FEATURES

Steel Grades of ASTM A500

ASTM A500 Carbon Steel Material Component Properties

ASTM A500 carbon steel structural tube is only made from materials that meet the carbon steel requirements. A500 is mostly composed of iron, with additional carbon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur, and copper. For accurate A500 carbon steel chemical characteristics, see the chart below.

Chemical Requirements

 

Element

Composition, %

Grades A, B, and D

Grade C

Heat Analysis

Product Analysis

Heat Analysis

Product Analysis

Carbon, max A

0.26

0.30

0.23

0.27

Manganese, max A

1.35

1.40

1.35

1.40

Phosphorus, max

0.035

0.045

0.035

0.045

Sulfur, max

0.035

0.045

0.035

0.045

Copper, min B

0.20

0.18

0.20

0.18

ASTM A500 Carbon Steel Mechanical Properties

The amount of stretching tension that a material can endure before breaking or failing is referred to as its tensile strength. The ultimate tensile strength of A500 carbon steel is computed by dividing its area by the stress applied to it, which is represented in pounds or tons per square inch of material. Tensile strength is a critical indicator of ASTM A500’s capacity to perform in a given application. The tensile strength of A500 carbon steel is shown in the chart below.

Mechanical Properties of ASTM A500 Round Structural Tubing

Item

Grade A

Grade B

Grade C

Grade D

Tensile strength, mn, ps (MPa)

45 000
(310)

58 000
(400)

62 00
(427)

58 000
(400)

Yield strength, mn, psi (MPa)

33 000
(228)

42 000
(290)

46 000
(317)

36 000
(250)

Elongation in 2 in. (50.8 mm), min, %A

25B

23C

21D

23C

Mechanical Properties of ASTM A500 Shaped Structural Tubing

Item

Grade A

Grade B

Grade C

Grade D

Tensile strength, mn, ps (MPa)

45 000
(310)

58 000
(400)

62 00
(427)

58 000
(400)

Yield strength, mn, psi (MPa)

39 000
(269)

46 000
(317)

50 000
(345)

36 000
(250)

Elongation in 2 in. (50.8 mm), min, %A

25B

23C

21D

23C

ASTM A500 Carbon Steel Permissible Dimensional Variations for Outside Dimensions

Outside diameter measurements for the ASTM A500 carbon steel tube must be taken at least 2″ (50.8mm) from each end.

The outer diameter of round structural tubing having a nominal OD of 1.900″ (48.26mm) or less may vary no more than 0.5 percent of the specified size, rounded to the closest 0.005″ (0.13mm). Outside diameter may not vary more than 0.75 percent, rounded to the closest 0.005″, for nominal ODs of 2″ (50.8mm) and greater.

Square and rectangular structural tubes must be measured across the flats with an allowance for convexity or concavity. The dimensions specified must not exceed the plus/minus tolerances stated in the table below.

Outside Dimensional Tolerances for ASTM A500 Square & Rectangular Steel Tubing

There are multiple considerations that must be accounted for when determining the outside dimensional tolerances for square and rectangular steel tubing. The chart below and the following attributes describe the exact outside dimensional tolerances for A500 carbon steel.

Outside Large Flat Dimension, in. (mm)

Large Flat Dimension Tolerance, A plus and minus, in. (mm)

2½ (63.5) or under

0.020 (0.51)

Over 2½ to 3½ (63.5 to 88.9), incl

0.025 (0.64)

Over 3½ to 5½, inc

0.030 (0.76)

Over 5½ (139.7)

0.01 times large flat dimension

Wall Thickness Requirement

Minimum wall thickness at any point of measurement shall not be less than 90% of specified nominal wall thickness. Maximum wall thickness, excluding weld seams, shall not be more than 110% of specified nominal wall thickness. Wall thickness of square structural tubing and rectangular structural tubing must be measured at the center of the flat.

Straightness Requirement

For a structural tube, the allowable variation in straightness is 1/8″ times the entire length in feet (or 10.4mm times the number of meters) divided by five.

Side Squareness Requirement

Specified Dimension of Longest Side, in. (mm)

Maximum Twist in the First 3 ft (1 m) and in each additional 3 ft

 

in.

mm

1½ (38.1) and under

0.050

1.39

Over 1½ to 2½ (38.1 to 63.5),incl

0.062

1.72

Over 2½ to 4 (63.5 to 101.6), incl

0.075

2.09

Over 4 to 6 (101.6 to 152.4), incl

0.087

2.42

Over 6 to 8 (152.4 to 203.2), incl

0.100

2.78

Over 8 (203)

0.112

3.11

For square structural tubing and rectangular structural tubing, adjacent sides may deviate from 90° by no more than ±2°.

Applications of ASTM A500 Steel Structural Pipe

- Construction & Heavy Equipment

Cranes, frames, roll-over protective structures (ROPS), and a variety of construction equipment – bulldozers, excavators, steam rollers, and so on.

- Agriculture

Cranes, frames, roll-over protective structures (ROPS), various forms of construction equipment such as combines, sprayers, harvesters, tractors, and so on, greenhouse structures

- Infrastructure

Columns, bridges, buildings, towers, signs, awnings

- Fluid Handling

Pump bases, hydraulic brackets, spacers

- Machinery

Machine bases, machine frames

- Oil & Gas

Off-shore drilling platforms, off-shore production equipment, tooling racks

- Energy

Solar brackets and bases, solar racking, power plants

- General Fabrication and Machining

Racks, spacers, bases, and a wide range of other common welding and machining applications are available.

- Automotive & Transportation

Frames for automobiles and trucks, trailers and truck bases, rail cars, vehicle racks, and carports.

ASTM A500 Carbon Steel Structural Tubing Benefits

ASTM A500 Carbon Steel Structural Tubing has various advantages that make it a popular building material for structural load-bearing applications. Some of the most noticeable advantages that A500 Carbon Steel Structural Tubing offers are:

  • Excellent weldability
  • Good machinability
  • Can be cold worked
  • Aesthetically pleasing
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